More than 200 vehicles drove more than 1,5 million km
DRIVE C2X successfully completed in July 2014
After three and a half years of work, the integrated project DRIVE C2X was successfully completed. The project provided a comprehensive, Europe-wide assessment of cooperative systems through field operational tests. The field trials involving seven test sites all across Europe proved the safety and efficiency benefits of cooperative systems. For the first time, more than 750 drivers successfully tested eight safety-related functions of cooperative systems all over Europe. A common reference system for C2X communication was rolled out - the respective standards were set. Technical tests indicate that the system is mature for deployment as was shown by the faultless performance of the functions during extensive field trials in seven European countries. The Coordinator, Matthias Schulze, Senior Manager Environment Perception at Daimler AG summarized: “The evaluation of the common European system in field trials across Europe verifies proper functioning of the C2X systems under real life conditions and proves European-wide interoperability.“
The safety impacts of the DRIVE C2X functions are clearly positive. Drivers react to information and warning signals. In-Vehicle Signage (IVS) on speed limit and Weather Warning (WW) showed most potential to decrease fatalities: Assuming a 100% penetration rate, IVS speed limit that provides continuous information would reduce on average 23% in fatalities and 13% in injuries. It is assumed that the penetration rates would be in 2020 highest 12% and 76% in 2030. For IVS speed limit, this would lead to the reduction in fatalities up to 3% in 2020 and up to 16% in 2030. Assuming a 100% penetration rate, Road Works Warning (RWW) would decrease fatalities by 3%, Emergency Brake Light Warning (EBLW) and Traffic Jam Ahead Warning (TJAW) by 2%. These functions would decrease injuries by 2% if all vehicles were equipped.
In-Vehicle Signage (IVS) on speed limit and Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory (GLOSA) showed significant effects for both environment and traffic efficiency. Drivers reacted to the information by reducing their speed in most cases. The impact of IVS on speed limits grows with the penetration rate and is biggest for fuel consumption and CO2 which reduces by 2.3% in the high passenger car penetration rate. GLOSA results in a small reduction in fuel consumption and CO2 emission at the EU-level. Reduced driver speeds using IVS on speed limits and GLOSA increased the delay in off-peak scenarios. Although drivers with Traffic Jam Ahead Warning (TJAW) reduced their speed earlier and with less harsh braking, no statistically significant traffic efficiency or environmental impact effects were found.
The user acceptance measurements show that nine out of ten test users highly welcome the cooperative system, and that they are willing to use it if it were available on their vehicles. The results indicate positive impacts on travel comfort. Specifically, journey quality is improved in terms of decreased user uncertainty and stress, and feeling of safety and comfort.
Finally, extensive business studies are available. More than 50 interviews with representatives across all important stakeholder groups show evidence for economic viability. The business study shows that even with a low penetration rate the benefit cost ratio (BCR) was 2, showing twice as much benefit as compared to costs. With a high penetration rate the benefits could almost be seven times higher than costs. Comparing the benefits of C2C and C2I-technology, it can be concluded that the benefits resulting from infrastructure based systems are slightly higher than those from C2C-technology.
With its cooperative driving campaign “making cooperative systems cooperate” with six major events bringing European and international stakeholders together, DRIVE C2X paved the way for deployment of C2X communication technology on a European scale.
The list of Deliverables you find here.